I am interested in the relationship between reality and our representations of it in thought and language. My main concern is to understand the consequences of the fact that our characterisation of this relationship is itself a representation of reality in thought or language. I work in areas of epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophies of mind and language that address these problems.



Authored Books


Representation and Reality in Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Oxford University Press, 2015. [OUP]


Conocimiento y escepticismo. Ensayos de epistemología, Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, 2014. [UNAM]


Scepticism and Reliable Belief, Oxford University Press, 2012. [OUP]



Introduction to the Theory of Logic, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 2000. [Routledge]

Spanish translation: Introducción a la teoría de la lógica, Alianza, 2002. [Alianza]


Concepciones de lo real: realismo y antirrealismo en semántica y metafísica, KRK Ediciones, Oviedo, 2012.


Edited Book


Wittgenstein's Early Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2012. [OUP]




"Humility and Metaphysics", Analytic Philosophy (forthcoming).

"Goddard and Judge on Tractarian Objects", Australasian Journal of Philosophy (forthcoming).

"Logic without Metaphysics", Synthese (forthcoming). [Springer]

"Inferentialism and Knowledge. Brandom's Arguments against Reliabilism", Synthese 198 (2021), pp. 975-93. [Springer]

"Safety, Sensitivity and Differential Support", Synthese 197 (2020), pp. 5379–5388. [Springer]

"Belief, Desire and the Prediction of Behaviour", Philosophical Issues 29 (2019), pp. 295-310. [Wiley]


"The Primacy of Practice". Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 86 (2019), pp. 181-99. [Cambridge]

"The Tractatus on Unity", Australasian Philosophical Review 2 (2018), pp. 250-71. [PDF]

Spanish translation: “La unidad en el Tractatus”, in David Pérez Chico (ed.), Cuestiones de Filosofía del Lenguaje, Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 2018, pp. 71-105.

“Response to Commentaries on ‘The Tractatus on Unity’”, Australasian Philosophical Review 2 (2018), pp. 343-54.

"Actualism and Modal Semantics", Acta Analytica 33 (2018), pp. 35-49. [Springer]

"Davidson, Russell and Wittgenstein on the Problem of Predication", in Claudine Verheggen (ed.), Wittgenstein and Davidson on Thought, Language, and Action, Cambridge University Press, 2017, pp. 226-49. [PDF]


"Reflective Knowledge and the Nature of Truth", Disputatio 8 (2016), pp. 147-71. [PDF]


"Empiricist Pragmatism", Philosophical Issues 26 (2016), pp. 441-61. [Wiley]


"El realismo y el anti-realismo", in JL Prades (ed.), Cuestiones de Metafísica, Tecnos, 2015, pp. 47-89.


“Epistemic Disjunctivism and the Evidential Problem”, Analysis 75 (2015), pp. 615-627. [OUP]


“Wittgenstein’s Nonsense Objection to Russell’s Theory of Judgment” in Michael Campbell and Michael O’Sullivan (eds.), Wittgenstein and Perception, Routledge, 2015, pp. 126-151. [PDF]


“Précis of Scepticism and Reliable Belief”, Teorema 33:3 (2014), pp. 88-91. [Dialnet]


“Replies to my Critics”, Teorema 33:3 (2014), pp. 181-202. [Dialnet]


“Inference and Scepticism”, in E. Zardini & D. Dodd (eds.), Scepticism and Perceptual Justification, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 108-127. [OUP]


“Reference, Simplicity and Necessary Existence in the Tractatus”, in J. Zalabardo (ed.), Wittgenstein's Early Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 119–150. [OUP]


“Wright on Moore”, in A. Coliva (ed.), Wittgenstein, Epistemology and Mind. Themes from the Philosophy of Crispin Wright, Oxford University Press, 2012 pp. 304–322. [OUP]


“Semantic Normativity and Naturalism”, in M. García Carpintero & M. Kölbel (eds.), Continuum Companion to Philosophy of Language, Continuum, London, 2012, pp. 203–227. [PDF]


“Boghossian on Inferential Knowledge“, Analytic Philosophy 52 (2011), pp. 124–39. [Wiley]


“The Tractatus on Logical Consequence”, European Journal of Philosophy 18 (2010), pp. 425–442. [Wiley]


“Why Believe the Truth? Shah and Velleman on the Aim of Belief”, Philosophical Explorations 13 (2010), pp. 1–21.  [Informaworld]


“An Argument for the Likelihood-Ratio Measure of Confirmation”, Analysis 69 (2009), pp. 630–635. [OUP][JSTOR]


“One Strand in the Rule-Following Considerations”, Synthese 171 (2009), pp. 509–519. [Springer]


“How I Know I'm Not a Brain in a Vat”, in A. O'Hear (ed.), Epistemology. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement: 64, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009, pp. 65–88. [CUP]


“Internalist Foundationalism and the Problem of the Epistemic Regress”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (2008), pp. 34–58. [Wiley]


“BonJour, Externalism and the Regress Problem”, Synthese 148 (2006), pp. 135–69. [Springer][JSTOR]


“Externalism, Skepticism and the Problem of Easy Knowledge”, Philosophical Review 114 (2005), pp. 33–61. [PDF]


“Wittgenstein on Accord”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 84 (2003), pp. 311–329. [Wiley]


“Towards a Nominalist Empiricism”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (2001), pp. 29–52. [Wiley][JSTOR]


“Realism Detranscendentalized”, European Journal of Philosophy 8 (2000), pp. 63–88. [Wiley]


“Putting Reference beyond Belief”, Philosophical Studies 91 (1998), pp. 221–257. [Springer]


“Kripke’s Normativity Argument”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 27 (1997), pp. 467–488. [JSTOR]


“Predicates, Properties, and the Goal of a Theory of Reference”, Grazer Philosophische Studien 51 (1996), pp. 121–161. [Brill]


“A Problem for Information Theoretic Semantics”, Synthese 105 (1995), pp. 1–29. [Springer]


“Rules, Communities and Judgments”, Crítica 21 (1989), pp. 33–58. [JSTOR]




Review of Marie McGinn, Elucidating the Tractatus: Wittgenstein’s Early Philosophy of Language and Logic (OUP, 2006), Mind 117 (2008), pp. 1105–1108. [OUP]


Review of María Cerezo, The Possibility of Language. Internal Tensions in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus (CSLI Publications, 2005), Mind 116 (2007), pp. 1095–1098. [OUP]


Review of John W. Cook, Wittgenstein, Empiricism and Language (OUP, 2000), Mind 111 (2002), pp. 88–92. [OUP]




Spanish translation of Kant’s Erste Einleitung in die Kritik der Urteilskraft: Primera Introducción a la Crítica del Juicio, Visor, Madrid, 1987.